Energy Efficiency in Kenya: Public Awareness, Strategies, Challenges & Opportunities

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Based on a desktop research and a survey of 137 households in Kenya, this report provides insights into the various energy demand and consumption aspects that influence the adoption of EE practices in the country. These include the different types of energy being used domestically in the household level, the respondents’ knowledge of EE, household energy consumption monitoring/tracking trends, respondents’ perception of EE, knowledge on the potential EE practices, benefits associated with EE, and their knowledge regarding climate change dynamics and how these compare with domestic energy use. It further explores the potential motivations for adopting EE practices as well as the current and preferred EE knowledge sharing platforms/channels to enhance knowledge and diffusion of EE ideas and options.

It concludes that the prevalent energy use practices are not necessarily energy efficient. The key determinant for energy use practices appears to be primarily the socioeconomic class (i.e. linked to wealth/poverty) and education levels of the household decision-makers. These attributes also seem to influence the choice of energy and information sources. In effect, the study establishes that some pockets of Kenyans adhere to EE practices while others do not. Other factors that play a role in this include the cost of energy and appliances, user attitudes and access to adequate information on energy conservation and efficiency.

Most households have limited options for switching energy sources and use. This is largely due to the monopoly of Kenya’s national electricity utility company, the Kenya Power (formerly known as the Kenya Power and Lighting Company, KPLC). We find that there have been and are several EE policies/regulations and initiatives in the country. However, their implementation and effectiveness face (or faced) a myriad of challenges including lack of support from the regulators, the regulated and the political leadership. Most Kenyans also are oblivious of these regulations or policies and the specific EE initiatives in their localities.


Product details
Date of Publication
July 2019
Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Rabat - Morocco
Number of Pages
Language of publication